Metabolic syndrome has also been called “syndrome X”. It is situation involving insulin insensitivity. Patients tend to have high cholesterol, with a decrease in HDL (“good” cholesterol) an increase in LDL (“bad” cholesterol) and high triglycerides. Many patients with the metabolic syndrome also have hypertension. One common problem encountered in men with the metabolic syndrome is erectile dysfunction (ED). Research appearing in the International Journal of Impotence Research [(2006) 18, 405–410] looked at the effect diet had on men who had the metabolic syndrome and erectile dysfunction. The 65 subjects of the study were divided into two groups. The test group consisted of 35 men who were assigned to follow the Mediterranean diet. The other 30 men were in the control group. After two years, 13 men in the test group and only two in the control group reported improved scores on the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire. This suggests that the Mediterranean diet may be an effective, natural way to deal with ED that does not have side-effects.