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A double-blind, placebo-controlled study published in the European Heart Journal (2005 26(21):2238-2244) looked at supplementation in elderly patients suffering from chronic heart failure. Thirty subjects with heart failure due to left ventricular dysfunction (average age 75) were given either a placebo or a multiple vitamin (containing calcium, copper, zinc, magnesium, selenium, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin D, CoQ10, vitamin E, folic acid and vitamins B1, B2, B6, and B12) or a placebo for nine months. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular (LV) volume were measured at the beginning and end of the study. The subjects were also given a six-minute walk test and they were given questionnaires to determine the quality of life. The group receiving the nutrients had improved LV volume and LVEF, as well as improved quality of life. The placebo group had no such improvements. Neither group had improvement in the six-minute walk test. The authors stated that long term supplementation could improve LV volume, LVEF, and the quality of life in patients with heart failure.