In research presented in the journal Skin Pharmacology and Physiology (2006; 19(4): 224-231), 39 subjects with healthy skin were divided into three groups. Two groups received antioxidants, and one group did not receive any supplementation. The dosages and the choice of antioxidants varied slightly between group one and group two. The antioxidants given included: lycopene (3 mg/day for group one and 6 mg/day for group two), lutein (3 mg/day for group one and none for group 2), beta-carotene (antioxidant and vitamin A precursor—4.8 mg/day for both groups), alpha tocopherol (vitamin E—10 mg/day for both groups) and selenium (75 mcg/day for both groups). The researchers found that roughness and scaling were reduced in both groups receiving the supplements, compared to the controls (according to Surface Evaluation of Living Skin [visioscan]). The skin in the group receiving supplements was also thicker and denser, according to measurements taken with ultrasound.